There are various violations of keratinization of the outer layer of the skin. For example, keratosis is a thickening of the stratum corneum (keratinization) of the skin, characteristic of a number of non-inflammatory diseases. More common is hyperkeratosis (hyper - over, over, keras (keratos) - horn) - excessive development or insufficient exfoliation of the stratum corneum. There is a separate group of diseases of the horny layer of the skin - ichthyosis - a skin disease mostly congenital, consisting of excessive formation and accumulation of horny scales resembling a fish scales on the skin.

Normal occurrence of hyperkeratosis is considered, for example, in post-traumatic healing. At the same time, the function of the skin layer is temporarily enhanced, providing the formation of new tissues for the speedy replacement of the missing part of the skin. Extremely unpleasant, however, non-dangerous, violation of keratinization of the skin is dandruff, appearing on the scalp and hairy parts of the body. With the disease of scaly lichen, there is a disturbance of the cornification of the skin, resembling scales, appears on other parts of the body. Long-term irradiation with sunlight also causes keratosis: the skin becomes wrinkled, the blood vessels expand, the surface layer thickens.


  • The keratinization of the hair follicles.
  • A thick layer of keratinized tissues.
  • Painful thickening of the skin on the palms and soles.
  • Peeling, tuberosity of the skin.

Plantar palmar calcifications

The formation of calluses on the soles and palms during physical work is natural and protects the skin from excessive pressure. In places subjected to friction and pressure, as a result of the increased division of skin cells in the germ layer of the epidermis, a particularly thick and dense horny layer is formed (corn appears). However, calluses are often the result of an inflammatory process. In women in the climacteric period, palms and soles may appear, calluses, reminiscent of the violation of keratinization of the skin. Especially often very dense thickenings are formed on the soles of the feet, pain arises due to their pressure on the underlying tissues. Many people suffer from this violation. Corns on the sole and the disturbance of keratinization of the skin of the feet can be an important symptom of deformities of the feet, for example, flat feet, flattening of the transverse arch of the foot.

Leather, like sandpaper

Due to various disorders of keratinization, the skin on the affected areas becomes similar to sandpaper. Often this roughness appears on the hairy parts of the body. Here the cells of the horny layer form outgrowths resembling warts.

Basler's disease

This violation of keratinization of epidemic skin is manifested in children. Most often on the face are formed acne or papules (small tight slightly rising above the skin of the nodule). There are also various forms of lichen (Lichen), in which foci of keratinization, can occur almost throughout the body. Often, there is severe itching in the sites of the nodules. Lichen planus is a chronic disease of unknown etiology that can develop with the administration of certain medicines and the chronic course of the disease. The lesions are flat, polygonal, purple, itchy. Keratosis and lichen are very similar, but they should not be confused.


Often it is possible to accurately describe the symptoms of the disease, but the true causes of the disease remain unknown. Therefore, often treat only the symptoms of keratosis, the very same disease is very often impossible to cure. In some cases, the symptoms of the disease go away on their own. For the treatment of painful calluses, foot care tools are used or a special therapeutic pedicure is used. Over time, the calluses decrease so much that they do not hurt the person. Excess of the stratum corneum of the skin can be removed by dedicated special saws. In addition, there are effective ointments that easily remove the horny layer of the skin, or drugs that cause peeling or exfoliation of the cornified layer and calluses. Effective baths with salt, which can be prepared at home.

Violations of keratinization can be the first symptom of skin cancer. When darkening, inflammation, soreness of the skin in the affected areas, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor.


1. Lyell's Syndrome
2. Sjogren's Syndrome
3. Scleroderma
4. Solar burns
5. Trophic ulcer of lower leg