All body systems function normally only if the heart feeds enough blood into the circulatory system. If, for some reason, this process is disrupted for some reason, then hypovolemic shock is manifested. It is also called "cold", as it is characterized by a spasm of small blood vessels and a weakening of the circulation of the extremities, which leads to their cooling. This condition is dangerous for the patient's life.
Hypovolemic shock can occur suddenly or develop gradually, within a few minutes. The shock comes because the brain and other organs with blood receive insufficient amounts of oxygen. First, the human body tries to compensate for the lack of oxygen by releasing into the blood of adrenaline, which has a stimulating effect on the cardiovascular system. If this does not help, then blood circulation is maintained due to the increased reduction of the blood vessels of almost all organs. If this condition lasts a long time, then the blood becomes oxidized, becomes thicker and blood clots are formed in it. At the same time, the blood circulation of organs worsens, blood pressure decreases, and the blood supply of the brain is impaired.
- Frequent weak pulse.
- Cold skin.
- Cold sweat.
- Severe weakness.
Causes of pathology development
One of the causes of hypovolemia is a decrease in the volume of circulating blood. This can be a consequence of internal or external bleeding that has occurred as a result of trauma. Hypovolemic shock can occur with myocardial infarction, severe heart failure and relaxation of the muscles of blood vessels. Blood accumulates in the blood vessels of the legs and abdominal cavity, as a result of this, blood supply to the brain and organs located in the upper part of the trunk worsens. Hypovolemia may occur due to a significant decrease in blood glucose, impaired renal function, poisoning, allergic reactions, burns. Shock is also possible for digestive disorders, accompanied by severe vomiting and diarrhea, a large loss of fluid, with damage to the renal tubules.
The patient is placed on his back on a flat surface, lifting his legs, placing a pillow or some object under them. The patient is released from the restraining clothes, cover with a warm blanket. Further treatment procedures can only be performed by a doctor. If necessary, he prescribes intravenous fluids or blood transfusions. The patient is allowed to breathe pure oxygen (often artificial ventilation of the lungs), inject drugs that stimulate blood circulation. If the patient is very restless or has severe pain, then medications are also prescribed.
Hypovolemic shock is life threatening. Therefore, if you suspect a shock, urgently need to call an ambulance.
The patient is made with artificial ventilation, injected with droplets of liquid and drugs that stimulate blood circulation. The doctor monitors the blood pressure and pulse of the patient, makes an electrocardiogram, watches the work of the heart.
Course of the disease
On the onset of hypovolemia can be judged by the following signs:
- At first the pulse becomes faster and weaker; After a while he hardly probes.
- The patient pales, the skin becomes cold, a cold sweat appears on the forehead, there is a chill.
- The patient becomes restless, he is seized with fear.
- Most patients are conscious, although their orientation is often disrupted.
- Patients respond to oral instructions, but soon, due to weakness, they stop responding to irritants.
If the patient has hypovolemic shock and there is a possibility that he can repeat, in this case the patient can not eat or drink - people who provide first aid should remember this. When receiving food, the circulatory system of the patient is subjected to an additional load. This can lead to unconsciousness, vomiting and eventually to choking.