Myocardial infarction

Medicine2

Myocardial infarction is a heart disease caused by acute insufficiency of its blood supply, with the emergence of a foci of necrosis in the heart.

As a result of the accumulation in the walls of substances with a high content of proteins and blood fats, the conductivity of the coronary vessels of the heart gradually decreases, so the myocardium constantly receives too little oxygen. The blood vessels supplying the heart muscle become brittle, their lumen narrowing.

With sudden increases in physical or psychological load, the need for oxygen increases, and the reduction of the altered blood vessels can reach a critical limit, further reducing blood flow. At this time, myocardial infarction usually occurs. Another cause of myocardial infarction is clotting of the blood vessel with a thrombus.

Symptoms

  • Chest pain with irradiation in the shoulder, hands, neck and upper abdomen.
  • Nausea, sweating.
  • Pressing pain behind the sternum.
  • Violation of the heart rate.

Treatment

The patient is hospitalized. In the intensive care unit or intensive care unit, all necessary measures are taken to provide assistance and save the patient's life.

The best prevention of myocardial infarction is to avoid risk factors, which are:

  • Improper diet.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Hypertension.
  • Diabetes.
  • Hypodinamy.

With pain in the heart, you need to see a doctor. If any of these symptoms appear, you should immediately call an ambulance.

The doctor usually can not immediately determine the diagnosis, so the patient is prescribed painkillers and sedatives, as well as nitro drugs and oxygen. In the Intensive Care Unit, the patient is immediately connected to a monitor that records the heart rate. If the rhythm of the heart is disturbed, medications are prescribed. Do a blood test for the presence of certain blood enzymes that indicate a myocardial infarction. Sometimes it is necessary to do indirect heart massage, as well as artificial ventilation of the lungs. At the end of the acute stage of the disease, the blood clot that clogs the blood vessel is dissolved with medication or removed by surgery.

An infarct occurs suddenly - a person feels severe pain behind the sternum, which can spread to the shoulder, hands, neck and upper abdomen. Often a painful attack is accompanied by fear of death, breathing becomes difficult, symptoms of heart failure appear. However, this does not always happen. Myocardial infarction is an insidious disease, its first symptoms may not be so acute, without pain, manifest as weakness and a digestive system disorder. At an early stage of myocardial infarction, life-threatening complications often occur, for example, the rhythm of the heart is disrupted, a shock occurs, and the heart wall ruptures.

About 10% of cases of myocardial infarction occur asymptomatically. Pathology is diagnosed as a result of later examinations of the patient.

Myocardial infarction is characterized by a disturbance of the heart rhythm. This condition is dangerous for the patient's life. The patient is prescribed medicines taking into account the nature of heart disorders. For example, with slowing of the heart rhythm, atropine is administered, with lidocaine being increased. To reduce pain, morphine and other analgesics are injected. Preparations of nitroglycerin are used to dilate blood vessels and reduce blood pressure. Oxygen is supplied artificially to improve oxygen supply. To suppress anxiety, the patient is prescribed sedatives.

The patient is immediately delivered to the cardiac resuscitation. A device is connected to the patient, which registers the heart rate and rhythm. An electrocardiogram of the patient is recorded. In addition, a blood test is done to determine the enzyme content. The results of the analysis are of great importance for determining the size of the infarction zone. If a heart attack is triggered by a blood clot, then they try to dissolve it with medication (thrombolysis). The most common complication is life-threatening heart rhythm disturbances (observed in about 90% of patients) - ventricular flutter, tachycardia and arrhythmia.

If there are no complications, then 10-14 days after the infarction the patient is discharged home. Over the next weeks, he should gradually increase physical activity. After the transfer of a heart attack, a person should lead a sparing lifestyle: avoid stress, heavy physical work, etc. It is unacceptable to drink alcohol. Many patients find it very difficult to change their habitual way of life, to give up their favorite activities and habits. Therefore, usually patients who underwent myocardial infarction are referred to a rehabilitation center where they are prescribed further treatment, make up special training programs, and provide psychological assistance. The purpose of rehabilitation is to help a person return to a full life in society.

Medical prevention

Myocardial infarction can occur suddenly. However, sometimes even before the onset of a heart attack, its symptoms appear. If you have regular pain in the heart, you need to see a doctor and make an electrocardiogram. In severe cases, the patient is operated on. There are two possible ways.

Shunting is a surgical operation to create a new path of blood flow around the occluded parts of the blood vessels of the heart. As a shunt, the vein of the leg is most often used. After the operation, the supply of the heart muscle with oxygen is normalized. Often shunts have to be applied in several places, since the narrowing of the coronary vessels are multiple.

With a slight narrowing of the lumen of the coronary artery, a balloon dilatation is performed. The balloon with the catheter is placed in the artery and the air is blown into it, thus the lumen of the vessel expands.

Sexual life after a heart attack

In patients who have had a heart attack, the sex life freezes. However, sexual intercourse should be abandoned only at the first time after a heart attack. Recommendations on this issue will be given by the attending physician.

But the regular use of hormonal contraceptive pills can lead to a change in the content of fats and insulin in the blood, the formation of thrombi, which contributes to the development of heart disease.

 

Related:
1. Aneurysm
2. Vegetative dystonia
3. Caisson disease
4. Lymphostasis of upper and lower extremities
5. Heart rhythm disturbances