Diseases of the heart and blood vessels

Heart diseases

Heart defects are congenital or acquired damages of the heart valves. In humans and mammals, 4 heart valves: tricuspid, bivalve, or mitral, and 2 semilunar. The bivalve (mitral) valve is formed by two valves, which are attached to the edges of the left atrioventricular aperture. Through it, the blood passes from the atrium into the ventricle, but the valve prevents its reverse current. The aortic valve - located between the left ventricle and the aorta, consists of 3 half-moon leaves, they prevent the return of blood from the aorta into the ventricle. The tricuspid valve consists of three valves that divide the right atrium and right ventricle. He does not allow the return of blood from...

Heart failure

With some diseases, there is a violation of the heart. The pathological condition caused by the incompetence of the heart as a pump that provides blood supply to tissues and organs is called heart failure. Heart failure is not an independent disease, but a consequence of various disorders, due to which the heart can not push into the artery sufficient for normal metabolism of blood or take blood from the veins. With heart failure during exercise, heart function does not increase (reduced stroke volume), ventricular failure develops. As a result, the heart can develop reverse blood flow, accompanied by an overflow of the lungs and liver blood. Heart failure may be right ventricular, left...

Raynaud's syndrome

Raynaud's syndrome is a paroxysmal infringement of the arterial blood supply to the hands or feet, which often occurs under the influence of cold. Her fingers become numb, pale, cold and cyanotic. After an attack, blood rushes into the affected blood vessels, which causes pain and redness of the hands and feet. There are two forms of Raynaud's syndrome-primary and secondary. Primary syndrome women are usually exposed more often than men. This disease develops after the end of the puberty period and, as a rule, disappears during pregnancy or at the beginning of the climacteric period. Secondary Raynaud's syndrome is a consequence of a variety of diseases that affect both women and men....

Elephantiasis

Elephancy (Latin elephantiasis) is a common name for diseases associated with impaired lymph drainage. This disease is a human and some animal species, which is a significant increase in individual parts of the body due to a sharp thickening of the skin and subcutaneous tissue due to chronic inflammation of the lymphatic tract, through which the outflow of lymph from the surrounding tissues, and stagnation of lymph. When elephantiasis is usually affected by the lower and upper limbs, but often edema is observed on the scrotum, breast and vulva. Swelling of the soft tissues can sometimes be very significant. At the beginning of the disease, edema is still treatable, but over time, the skin...

Angina pectoris

Angina pectoris (or angina pectoris) is a sudden lack of oxygen in the heart muscle due to the narrowing of the coronary arteries of the heart. This shortage, observed, mainly during a physical or emotional load, is the cause of the retrosternal pain of a compressive or pressing nature. In addition, the feeling of tightness in the chest, which occurs during an attack, often causes a person a sense of fear. Symptoms Pain radiating to the hands, neck or stomach. Dyspnea. Sensation of chest tightness. Fear. Causes Blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) is carried out by the coronary arteries. When they narrow, the blood supply to the heart muscle becomes insufficient. As a...