Albinism is a congenital deficiency or lack of pigment in the body. This rare hereditary disease manifests itself from birth. The albinos have very light, pale pink skin, very blond hair and a light iris of the eyes. There are full and partial albinism. Full albinism - there is no production of melanin. Partial albinism (albinismus partialis) - melanin deficiency is observed in certain parts of the body, which is manifested by light pink or white spots on the skin, in the hair can be completely white strands.
Symptoms of albinism
- Pale pink skin color.
- Blonde hair.
- Bright iris of the eyes.
- Hypersensitivity to light.
The causes of albinism
Albinism is a hereditary disease that does not depend on either race or climate. The inheritance of leukopathy, or full albinism, occurs according to the recessive type. This means that the disease is due to the presence of hereditary information in the genes of both the father and mother. Thus, if the father of the child is an albino, and the mother is perfectly healthy, the child will be born healthy. Inheritance of partial albinism occurs by a dominant type. This means that a sick person transmits this disease to his offspring, therefore all his descendants suffer from albinism. The inheritance of albinism can be associated with the X chromosome: the mother, being the carrier of the disease gene, transmits the disease to her son. In albinism, the development of skin pigment melanin is disrupted. In the body of any person, even in the presence of the disease, melanocytes are present in normal amounts, but the cause of the disease is the absence (or blockade) of the tyrosinase enzyme necessary for the synthesis of melanin.
Treatment of albinism
As in most cases of hereditary diseases, albinism is incurable, so if the child was born as an albino, then it is necessary to put up, prepare psychologically and teach the child to cope with it.
Patients should avoid direct sunlight, stay out of the sun, use special sun protection and wear dark glasses to avoid injuring sensitive eyes.
Albinism can be suspected immediately after the birth of the child. He, as a rule, is diagnosed already at the first preventive examination.
In addition to albinism, there are many diseases characterized by impaired pigment production, some of them are quite dangerous. To exclude possible diseases and to confirm the diagnosis of albinism, several studies should be performed.
Course of the disease
Albinism is a non-dangerous disease, but due to the lack of a melanin pigment, the likelihood of skin cancer is significantly higher than that of other people. To reduce the risk of cancer, you must avoid direct sunlight and always use protective products for the skin.
The skin of albinos is sensitive to ultraviolet rays. Even short exposure to sunlight can cause severe burns. Therefore, you must not only avoid direct sunlight, but also constantly use a protective cream for the skin, wear dark glasses and clothes that cover the body well from the sun.