Endocrinology

Disturbances of fat metabolism

Fat (lipid) metabolism is the production and splitting of fats and fat-like substances in the body, occurring primarily in the liver and adipose tissue. The mechanisms of regulatory processes are very complex; The most significant influence on them is exerted by hormones such as: insulin, adrenaline, thyroxine, and also sex hormones. There are two main disorders of fat metabolism: hypercholesterolemia (or hypercholesterolemia) and hypertriglyceridemia. In the first case, blood cholesterol significantly increases in blood plasma (in 100 ml of plasma contains more than 260 mg of cholesterol), and in the second - triglycerides (in 100 ml more than 172 mg of triglycerides). At the same time,...

Metabolic disorders

The basis of metabolism is chemical reactions that occur in the human body. All substances for metabolic reactions, except oxygen, enter the body with food. Usually the body is dominated by the equilibrium of the processes of construction and splitting. However, this balance can be violated for various reasons. Causes of metabolic disorders Some metabolic disorders can be hereditary or result from organic diseases. However, very often metabolic disorders are caused by malnutrition, and are also possible with excess or deficiency of certain nutrients. Excess of some nutrients in the body occurs if a person consumes too much fatty foods. The lack of certain elements arises with strict...

Disorders of copper exchange

In the case of violations of copper exchange, the so-called. Wilson's disease, or hepatolenticular dystrophy (chronic destruction of the liver and lens of the eye). In the first place, the liver is affected. However, copper accumulates in other organs, mainly in the brain. With hepatolenticular dystrophy, deposits of copper appear in the liver, then hepatitis occurs. As a result, the patient can die because of liver failure. Poisoning has a particularly strong effect on the brain. There are clonic and tonic convulsions. There are contractures, as well as violent movements - violent laughter, crying, disorders of tendon reflexes, etc. From the psyche, memory loss, euphoria, tearfulness, a...

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrates in the body are in the form of glucose. The normal concentration of glucose in the blood is 80-100 mg / 100 ml (or 3.3-3.5 mmol / l). The concentration of glucose in the blood plasma is regulated by two hormones of the pancreas. Glucose in the form of glycogen is deposited in the liver and, if necessary or under the influence of the hormone-glycogen, glycogen again decomposes into glucose. Then the blood glucose level increases, resulting in increased secretion of the hormone insulin, which lowers the glucose level in the blood. When the regulation of glucose in the blood is disturbed, the metabolism of all substances is disrupted. Due to lack of insulin, a person develops...

Diseases of the thymus gland

Thymus gland (thymus, thymus) is the central organ of the immune system of vertebrates. It is located in the thoracic cavity in the region of the anterior mediastinum, somewhat above the pericardium. The thymus gland of newborns is large, reaches the fourth rib and is attached at the level of the sternum. This is an organ that grows up to 10 years in size, and after 18 years begins to decrease. Definitely thymus is one of the most important and necessary organs for the formation and activity of the human immune system. What are thymus diseases? There is a congenital insufficiency of the thymus gland function, its dystopia (when the thymus is not in its place). Sometimes the thymus...