Endocrinology

Horse Syndrome

Connes syndrome is a combination of muscle weakness, anomalously strong thirst, the production of a large amount of urine and hypertension, which arises from the excessive secretion of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. Symptoms may appear during pregnancy. This rare disease, sometimes also called "primary aldosteronism," was discovered in 1955 by the American physician Jerome Conn. Women are exposed to this hormonal disease twice as often as men. Usually they get sick at the age of 30-50 years. Symptoms of Connes syndrome Dizziness. Fatigue. High blood pressure. Muscle weakness. Heart rhythm disturbances. Abundant urination. Causes of Connes Syndrome Conn's...

Hyperfunction of the adrenal glands

Endocrinology Hyperfunction of the adrenal glands The adrenal glands are the endocrine glands located above the kidneys. Each gland consists of an external cortical and inner medulla. In the outer layer, important groups of hormones are produced: Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone, etc.) are involved in the regulation of mineral metabolism. Glucocorticoids (cortisone, cortisol, corticosterone). Affect the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, inhibit the inflammatory reaction, have an antiallergic effect, control the reaction to stress. Androgens, or male sex hormones, are necessary for both the female and the male body. In the embryonic period, they...

Endemic goiter

Endemic goiter is the disease of the whole body, the main symptom of which is the enlargement of the thyroid gland. It is located on the front of the neck, below the larynx. The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system of the body that produces hormones. Getting into the blood, hormones affect the metabolism, growth, nervous system, the general constitution of man, etc. For the production of hormones, the thyroid gland needs iodine, if it is not enough, it increases. Endemic goiter is formed. Over time, there may be nodes (nodular goiter). Treatment is medication, in severe cases - surgical. Symptoms of endemic goiter Thyroid enlargement. Hoarseness and shortness of breath. Edema...

Endocrine ophthalmopathy

Endocrine ophthalmopathy (literally "eye pain") is an eye disease that manifests itself in about 50% of all cases of increased thyroid activity. Until recently, this condition was called endocrine orbitopathy and was considered one of the symptoms of Graves' disease (thyrotoxicosis). However, as it turned out, endocrine ophthalmopathy can manifest itself as an independent disease (even when the function of the thyroid gland is not violated). The main symptom of this disease is a strongly pronounced exophthalmos (pop-eyed). With endocrine ophthalmopathy, the tissue behind the eyeball thickens, causing it to protrude. In this regard, a person rarely blinks, he has pain in his eyes, and in the...

Hyperprolactinemia

When the human body produces and releases too much hormone-prolactin into the blood, hyperprolactinemia arises. Prolactin is formed in the anterior pituitary gland. In men, prolactin stimulates the growth of the prostate (prostate) and seminal vesicles, indirectly affecting the formation of the seed. In women, prolactin stimulates the growth and development of mammary glands. Especially important is prolactin during pregnancy and, breast-feeding: it stimulates the production of milk after childbirth. The release of this hormone into the blood is controlled by the hypothalamus, the center of the regulation of the pituitary hormones. Symptoms of hyperprolactinemia In men: Decreased sex...