Borreliosis is a disease caused by spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia, characterized by early skin lesions and migrating erythema. After weeks or even months, there may be lesions of the nervous system, heart, joints. The most common tick borreliosis (Lyme disease). Infection occurs when the infected tick is bitten.
- Red spot on the site of the tick bite.
- General malaise, pain in the joints.
- Neurological symptoms.
- Increased redness of the skin.
More than 50% of people have symptoms of borreliosis 3-30 days after the bite of an infected tick. First of all, at the site of the bite there is a characteristic reddening of the skin, which increases and can persist for several months. In addition, sometimes there is an increase in the regional lymph nodes located near the site of the bite. Often there are additional symptoms of a general nature, for example, fever, headaches, stiff neck and neck muscles, migraine pains in the joints and muscles.
The first stage of the disease can occur almost without symptoms, even without rashes. With the onset of the second stage of the disease, after about a year, the patient may experience separate paralysis of the cranial nerves, there may be disturbances in swallowing, sight, hearing, speech or taste. Often, the disease begins with acute inflammation of the facial nerve. In addition, symptoms of meningitis are possible, the function of the spinal cord may be impaired, myocarditis, inflammation of the joints may begin. And yet, spontaneous recovery is possible without residual effects. However, despite the possibility of spontaneous recovery, you need to see a doctor, because the disease can go to the third stage, which is characterized by a chronic and incurable violation of the function of the brain, heart and solitary joints.
Causes of the disease
The carriers of borreliosis are usually infected with ixodid mites, although the possibility of transfer of infection and other blood-sucking insects is not ruled out. In various countries, the number of borrelids infected by ticks varies from 5 to 60%. It is assumed that many people suffering from rheumatism for their illness should be "thankful" to the mites that infected them many years ago.
How to treat?
Having established the diagnosis of borreliosis, the patient is prescribed antibiotics. At the first stage of the disease treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis, in the second or third stage - in a hospital.
Ticks fall on a person's clothes while walking through the forest, then, reaching the skin, suck. Especially a lot of mites on the forest edges. Therefore, before going to the forest, you must dress appropriately: clothes should cover the entire body, it is recommended to put on a hat or tie a handkerchief. In recent years, mites often occur in the parks of large cities, so it is recommended to walk only along the alleys or paths of the park.
If the tick sucked, it should be removed as soon as possible. If it was not possible to do it yourself, then consult a doctor. If, after a tick bite, a reddish stain appears on the skin, swollen joints or neurological symptoms appear, it is necessary to see a doctor immediately.
Due to timely diagnosis and treatment methods, there is a possibility of recovery. With the early use of antibiotics, it is possible to avoid severe dysfunction of the central nervous system and joints.
When inflammation of the joints, it is necessary to think about the presence of borreliosis, especially if the inflammation began in the summer. In this case, you need to see a doctor.