Bacterial dysentery (shigellosis) - an infectious disease with fecal-oral transmission mechanism, is caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella. For shigellosis characteristic heavy diarrhea. Perhaps a strong lesion of the mucous membrane of the colon until necrosis, in extreme cases - perforation of the intestine. Infectious dose for dysentery is very small. Possible violations of blood circulation, damage to the nervous system, even paralysis of muscles.
Shigellosis is a rapidly spreading infection. In connection with the possibility of the epidemic in each case of the disease the doctor must inform the competent medical authorities. Outbreaks of shigellosis are often found in closed institutions - boarding schools, the army, prisons.
- Cramping abdominal pain.
- Temperature up to 40 ° С.
- Intensive, painful diarrhea (up to 30 times a day).
Bacteria primarily irritate the mucosa of the colon, which begins to produce more secretions. The mucous membrane, affected by inflammation, ulcerates, tissues die, soften. Stools are initially feces, then they contain an admixture of mucus and blood, and in more severe cases only a small amount of bloody mucus. Bacteria, getting through the walls of blood vessels in the blood, can disrupt blood circulation, cause myocarditis, meningitis, encephalitis, inflammation of the joints. Usually shigellosis proceeds without complications. However, a person who has undergone this disease, for another three months can allocate dangerous bacteria to the environment.
If the disease lasts more than 3 months, shigellosis can become chronic. It can take the form of individual exacerbations, rarely there is a continuous flow. Such patients are bacterial carriers, i.e. Sources of infection.
Causes of development
The causative agents of dysentery are the bacteria of the genus Shigella. They are widely distributed throughout the world. The source of infection is sick people or bacterial carriers. The main transmission routes are fecal-oral and contact-household (through water, food products). A certain role is played by insect vectors-flies that carry the causative agent to food products. Therefore, the main means of preventing dysentery is personal hygiene. The severity of the disease largely depends on the type of pathogen, which is determined by laboratory tests. Some of them cause only mild diarrhea.
The doctor should intensively treat both the infection itself and the symptoms of the disease. Bacteria are destroyed by large doses of antibiotics. In a vein, a liquid is injected into the vein to compensate for its deficiency, which inevitably occurs with diarrhea. In extreme cases of dehydration, a lethal outcome is possible. In severe cases, artificial feeding of patients is used, then patients are transferred to a sparing diet, later - to normal diet.
If a disease occurs, drink as much liquid as possible. It is best to drink mineral water or a few salted boiled water. For the prevention of personal hygiene, drink only boiled water, carefully handle food. It is recommended to drink less cold water, because cold liquid, having an effect on the intestine, can manifest as a hidden dysentery. Before traveling to tropical countries, one must be vaccinated. True, vaccination will not protect against infection, but the course of the disease will be milder.
Cramping abdominal pain, fever, intense and painful diarrhea can all be the first symptoms of dysentery. To avoid serious complications, you should immediately consult a doctor.
First of all, the doctor will make a stool for the determination of the pathogen, perform a blood test for the presence of endotoxins and exotoxins. When the diagnosis of dysentery is confirmed, the patient is hospitalized in the infectious hospital where he is being treated. He can return to work only after full recovery.