Yellow fever is an acute infectious disease caused by arbovirus. It is transmitted by mosquitoes, characterized by hemorrhagic syndrome, lesion of the cardiovascular system, liver and kidneys. Distributed in tropical countries of Latin America and Africa. Depending on the type of vector, urban (Aedes aegypty mosquitoes) and rural or jungle (mosquitoes of the genus Haemagogus) are distinguished. In the most severe cases of the disease, it can lead to the death of the patient.
- Headaches, back pain, limbs, nausea and vomiting.
- Increase in temperature to 39-40 ° С.
- Gastrointestinal bleeding.
- The liver is enlarged.
Yellow fever causes arbovirus, which is resistant to antibiotics and well tolerates cold. Mosquitoes are carriers of this disease.
Yellow fever refers to infectious diseases, so to prevent its spread, each case of the disease should be notified to the competent authorities. There are no effective medicines for yellow fever, therefore, symptomatic treatment is performed. Assign a diet with the required amount of fluid and vitamins, a vein is dripped with a saline solution, sometimes doing hemodialysis. Self-medication is unacceptable.
If you are going to countries with a tropical climate, make an inoculation against this fever. If, after returning from tropical countries, you have symptoms of the disease, you should urgently consult a doctor.
The doctor, having established the diagnosis, will take appropriate measures, depending on the stage of the disease and its severity.
Course of the disease
- The disease begins 5-7 days after a mosquito bite. The temperature rises to 39-40 ° C, the patient is restless, he is shivering, his head and back muscles are hurting.
- Soon, blushing face, connective membrane and sclera of the eyes, lips swelling, the tongue becomes bright red. There is nausea and vomiting, there may be gastrointestinal bleeding, insomnia, nonsense.
- After 3 days, many patients suffer from fever and a slightly better condition. Almost 15% of patients have a fever on the 4th day, symptoms of poisoning of the body appear: the liver is enlarged, the spleen, kidneys and heart are affected. This is the second stage of the disease. The face acquires a pale yellow color, which is a symptom of the beginning of jaundice.
- Swollen and bleeding gums. The patient has a bloody vomiting or bleeding from the intestine.
- Despite the high temperature, the patient has a rare pulse, blood pressure drops, a collapse is possible. About 80% of patients in the second stage of the disease (6-8 days) die as a result of cardiovascular, renal or hepatic insufficiency. If a person survives, he begins to recover, unfortunately, not without residual effects, which are usually manifested by liver damage. After the transferred illness, immunity is acquired.
- In recent years, the prospects for treating the disease are good. Various antiviral drugs are synthesized and tested.
Prognosis and prevention
Yellow fever is a very dangerous tropical disease that can lead to death. Prevention: Vaccination of people traveling to tropical countries; Destruction of mosquito vectors. With the help of these measures, this disease can usually be controlled. The last big epidemic of this disease broke out in 1960-1962. It is assumed that it claimed the lives of 15-30 thousand people.
Before traveling to countries with a tropical climate (for example, the countries of Africa and South America) one must be vaccinated, after which, after 10 days, immunity develops, which lasts up to 10 years.