Glomerulonephritis

Medicine2


What is glomerulonephritis?

Glomerulonephritis is a kidney disease affecting the renal glomeruli. Kidneys consist of millions of microscopic filters called renal glomeruli. The glomeruli recognize the release products to be removed, for example urea. Renal glomeruli act as microscopic filters: together with water, single molecules of salts or harmful substances are removed from the blood. Usually glomerulonephritis is a consequence of other diseases, but sometimes it can start spontaneously (for no apparent reason).

Symptoms of glomerulonephritis

  • Fatigue, exhaustion.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Oliguria, nausea.
  • Dark urine.
  • Headaches and kidney pain.
  • Visual disturbances.
  • Convulsions.

Causes of glomerulonephritis

The cause of glomerulonephritis is usually considered to be the response of the human body to antibody-antigen reactions, which mainly affect the functioning of the kidneys due to their filtering function. The disease most often develops after the infection, for example, streptococcal infection, as well as due to diseases such as angina, scarlet fever, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, etc. Due to these diseases, inflammation may begin after 1-3 weeks. This form of glomerulonephritis is more likely to affect children aged 3 to 16 years, but adults can also be ill.

Treatment of glomerulonephritis

With glomerulonephritis, secretory and excretory renal function is impaired. In the human body, salts (electrolytes) begin to accumulate, especially sodium chloride, resulting in increased blood pressure. A patient with glomerulonephritis should follow a special diet that limits the intake of salt. Sometimes it is necessary to limit the use of proteins, too. Protein deposits in the kidneys contribute to clogging of the renal tubules.

With the onset of the acute stage of the disease, the amount of fluid consumed by the patient should correspond to the amount of fluid released by the kidneys. Most often the patient must adhere to strict bed rest. In severe cases, the disease can last for several weeks. Therefore, penicillin or another antibiotic is prescribed.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to protect yourself from glomerulonephritis. After an infectious disease, it is recommended that some time be refrained from salty foods. With angina, scarlet fever or another disease it is extremely important to take prescribed antibiotics, strictly following the instructions of the treating doctor.

Glomerulonephritis is a serious and dangerous disease, the consequences of which can be very serious, for example, the onset of kidney failure. Therefore, when the first symptoms of this disease appear, you should urgently consult a qualified doctor. Suspicion of glomerulonephritis can occur with the appearance of facial swelling, general and muscular weakness, as well as with a decrease in the daily amount of urine, which becomes turbid and dark. Sometimes there are severe headaches, body temperature rises, pains in the kidney area, nausea and even vomiting, vision is impaired, a seizure begins. In such cases, you need to see a doctor immediately.

The doctor can make a preliminary diagnosis on the symptoms of the disease, to clarify which he will perform a blood and urine test, measure body temperature and blood pressure.

Course of the disease

Excess of salt, accumulating in the body, promotes retention of water and thereby overloads the work of the heart. The blood pressure rises. Appear edema. With acute glomerulonephritis, blood appears in the urine. In the absence of treatment, renal function is impaired. There is a poisoning of the body with slags, which are not released through the kidneys. In addition, due to constant overload, the work of the heart is disrupted. With timely and proper treatment, it is usually possible to avoid severe residual events, but there is a danger of repeated exacerbations and remissions.

 

Related:
1. Polycystic kidney disease
2. Chronic Renal Failure
3. Kidney stone disease
4. Inflammation of renal pelvis