Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy, manifested by flaccid paresis, sensitivity disorders and vegetative disorders. This is an autoimmune disease with very serious consequences. Nerve fibers cover the myelinated layer, which seems to envelop the nerve. It consists of lipids that protect and nourish the nerve. According to myelinated nerve fibers, impulses go faster than unmyelinated. When the inflammation surrounds the peripheral nerves of the body or facial muscles, inflammation of the myelin layer or nerve arises. Sometimes in half a year the illness passes independently, however its transition to the chronic form is possible. There is a risk of death.
Symptoms of the disease
- Lack of sensitivity in the limbs.
- Pain in the back, shoulder and pelvic girdle.
- Paralysis of lower and upper extremities.
- Weak muscles.
Muscles of the lower extremities become sluggish and unable to perform their function. It seems to the patient that the creeps creep along the legs, they become insensitive, the feeling of pain and sensation of touch weaken. Painful sensations can be checked with the help of needle nail tips. There are symptoms of muscle atrophy. During the first days the disease progresses, after a while the upper limbs and other parts of the body are affected. Patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome should be treated in a hospital (2-4 weeks after the onset of the first symptoms of the disease). Sometimes a patient needs artificial ventilation.
Causes of development
Syndrome Guillain-Barre suffer worldwide, most often children. Usually, the disease develops after a previous infection of the upper respiratory tract or intestinal infection. After 1-3 weeks, symptoms of paralysis occur. Usually, the myelinated layer is affected by the infectious processes occurring in the human body, but this can also occur in violation of the immune and nervous systems, as well as poisoning with chemicals or foreign to the body proteins. Sometimes the disease occurs after surgery.
Diagnosis of the syndrome
The neuropathologist will examine the muscles of the lower and upper extremities, check the tendon reflexes. With the help of a lumbar puncture, he will take the cerebrospinal fluid. The doctor will perform electroneuromyography to check the conductivity of the nerves, which is somewhat painful for the patient. In some cases, he can take a tissue sample of the affected nerve for microscopic examination. When performing a blood test, a doctor can detect foci of infection in the body. Based on the results, the doctor prescribes appropriate treatment.
Features of treatment
Treatment is especially important in the first hours of the disease. If pain occurs in the limbs, weakness, paralysis, you should immediately go to the hospital. In the absence of treatment, paralysis can spread and cover the respiratory muscles, which poses a threat to life. Treatment of patients is usually carried out in intensive care units, blood transfusion is performed. Anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed, and for infection, antibiotics. Sometimes you have to prescribe drugs that suppress the immune system. At the end of the acute period, it is important to treat residual events. This is a fairly long process.
In the treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome, physiotherapy and kinesiotherapy are actively used. In the acute stage of the disease, the muscles of the upper and lower limbs are flaccid and paralyzed, therefore, due to muscle atrophy, shortening of tendons and changes in bone tissue, residual effects are possible. This danger can be reduced by the use of massage and exercise physical therapy. Treatment promotes complete restoration of muscle function.
Preventive measures that can save from Guillain-Barre syndrome, no. In case of illness, exercise exercises should be performed correctly and strictly adhere to a special diet prescribed by a doctor.
If you have muscle weakness, you should see a doctor. The disease must be treated, but in any case, after the disease, residual effects and even death are possible.