- 1 What is psychosomatics?
- 2 Symptoms of psychosomatic illnesses
- 3 Structure of psychosomatic illnesses
- 4 Doctors actions: how to identify a psychosomatic illness from others
- 5 Causes of psychosomatic illnesses
- 6 Treatment of psychosomatic illnesses
- 7 Types of psychosomatic illnesses
What is psychosomatics?
In the medical literature, psychosomatics is defined as the direction of medical research that studies the influence of mental factors on the occurrence and course of physical (somatic) diseases. Organic lesions and functional disorders are evaluated taking into account the mental, mental state of a person, his social environment, life situation and personality characteristics of the patient. In traditional medicine, psychosomatics is an independent direction.
Symptoms of psychosomatic illnesses
- Sensitive stomach.
- Stomach ulcer.
- Difficulty breathing.
- High blood pressure.
- Pain in joints and limbs.
Structure of psychosomatic illnesses
Psychosomatic illness is a disease that has arisen as a result of overstrain of the nervous system. The disturbance of the activity of the cells of the cerebral cortex of the cerebral hemispheres is accompanied by changes in some internal organ, most often in one that is directly related to the affected part of the cerebral cortex or subcortical region. Almost in all fields of medicine there are diseases that can be called psychosomatic. There are several forms of psychosomatic diseases.
Diseases in which organic changes occur
Psychosomatic illnesses are those diseases that are accompanied by objectively diagnosed and measurable organic changes, the development and course of which is due to the state of the patient's psyche. This peptic ulcer, eczema, some forms of hypertension and intestinal inflammation, bronchial asthma, hyperthyroidism.
Diseases in which organic changes are not observed
These are diseases in which physical ailments are manifested, but the doctor after the examination of the patient, he does not detect any organic changes. Often, these diseases are called disorders of the autonomic nervous system (vegeto-dystonia). However, if the consequence (which is the functional disorder of the autonomic nervous system) of these diseases is less clear, their causes are still not clear.
Psychosomatic object of modern medicine - mental reactions to somatic diseases. The main areas of the study are the normal and pathological reaction of a person to severe or chronic diseases, accidents, operations and intensive care procedures performed by a doctor.
Doctor's actions: how to identify a psychosomatic illness from others
It is often difficult to strictly separate the psychosomatic illness from the organic one. Some doctors always try to find the spiritual cause of the disease or malaise, while other doctors, on the contrary, do not pay any attention to it.
The disease is considered psychosomatic in the event that the detailed story of the patient can conclude that the symptoms of the disease he had at the same time with psychological problems. The doctor can also learn about this from the patient's questionnaire - he collects information about the medical history (anamnesis), taking into account the concrete life situation of the patient. Psychosomatic diagnosis is supplemented by physical examination, sometimes - psychological tests.
Causes of psychosomatic illnesses
According to modern psychosomatic medicine, the disease is inherently inherent in the human body, for example, the influence of heredity, physique or previously transmitted diseases. The emergence of the disease affects the human psyche, the social and social environment.
The influence of mental factors on the occurrence of diseases is high enough. Often, psychosomatic causes are caused by obesity, thinness, skin diseases, rheumatic and female diseases, impotence, insomnia and even cancer.
Treatment of psychosomatic illnesses
The main method of treatment of psychosomatic illnesses is psychotherapy. However, sometimes, given the nature and severity of the disease, prescribe and drug treatment. In some cases, the patient even has to operate. Psychotherapy is a method of treating a patient with means of psychic influence. Usually this treatment is through a conversation, the purpose of which is to help the patient in understanding, understanding and solving his own problems. So a new experience is acquired, life attitudes, behavior change. There are various forms of therapy, for example, group, family, behavioral therapy. Hypnosis and autogenic training can also be used.
Types of psychosomatic illnesses
Psychosomatic are illnesses caused by mental factors - stress, nervous exhaustion, certain personality traits. It is assumed that the features of the human psyche also have an effect on the most widely known diseases.
In many cases, the course and severity of infectious diseases are due to a person's mental state. A lot of people are infected with various viruses and bacteria, but usually the body's immune system "copes" with pathogens of the disease, the symptoms of which are not manifested. Meanwhile, other people, into whose organism the same pathogens fall, get sick. In addition, the course of the same infectious diseases can be different, for example:
About 70-90% of all people are infected with herpes simplex virus. Most often, the spread of pathogens stops, but because of stress, this balance can be violated. Functions of the immune system of the human body can be disturbed due to travel and family conflicts. Then there is a simple herpes on the lips. Bubbles quickly heal, but the next time after the recurrence of the conflict situation, they reappear.
When infected with a polio virus, severe mental stress often affects the onset of paralysis. In the psychosomatic approach to the diseases, studies were carried out, the purpose of which was to determine the impact of the general mental load, stress and emotions on the human immune system. It turned out that the infectious diseases and their course of mental factors do have a big impact.
Psychosomatic diseases of the cardiovascular system are most frequent. The functions of the heart and circulatory system are affected by physical stress, emotional state, stress, etc. Among psychosomatic diseases, first of all, it is necessary to mention cardiopathy, cardiac rhythm disturbances and high blood pressure. Diseases of the coronary vessels of the heart and myocardial infarction - the result of constant stress, occurs more often in people aged 40-50 years, so-called. "Illness of leaders".
Diseases of the respiratory system
Psychosomatic are also the causes of bronchial asthma and some other diseases of the respiratory system. By the way, bronchial asthma is the first organic disease, which interested specialists, researchers in the field of psychoanalysis. There are several reasons for this disease, among them: infection, allergy, and also mental causes.
Diseases of the digestive system
Many diseases of the digestive tract can be caused by psychosomatic causes, for example, swallowing disorders, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer, constipation, vomiting, diarrhea.